As the Drupal market continues to rock and roll, more and more clients need “Drupal Developers”. But what exactly is a Drupal Developer? A Drupal Developer is someone who knows Drupal right? Right?!

There always has been some confusion around job titles and skills in the Drupal world. This is especially true with some recruiters and even managers and clients that are hiring. In effect, there are three main areas of expertise in the Drupal world: site building, backend/module development and theming. The skills required for each are quite different.

Drupal Site Builder

A Drupal site builder is someone who builds Drupal sites with point and click in the admin UI without writing much or any custom code. I say much, because they might implement the odd hook here and there. But most of the functionality of the site/application comes from configuring Drupal core and contributed modules. Site Builders will have experience with a wide range of contributed modules and will understand how they work together to solve a particular problem. They will understand the limitations of modules and should be able to provide a concise argument of the pros and cons of various solutions. Site Builders will build the content types, taxonomy, navigation, image presets, rules etc. One of the magnificent things about Drupal is that it does not exclude non-developers. The Drupal community and the platform provides a very powerful tool set for people to build innovative and complex sites without the requirement to be a programmer. And mastering this is a very valuable skill in itself.

Drupal Themer / Frontend developer

A Drupal Themer is the specialist front end developer. They are experts in HTML, CSS and Javascript. They are also experts in the Drupal theme layer. They should be able to take a design and turn it into the working theme. Ideally they will be well versed in implementing responsive design.

Drupal Module Developer / Backend developer

A Drupal developer is someone who writes a lot of PHP and other server side languages. They write custom modules, automated tests, consume web services, automate deployment etc. They may also be know as “backend Drupal developers”. They may also get involved in some of the more advanced side of the theme layer as well. Often they will set up automated deployment.

A note on contributing and collaboration

Drupal is inherently a collaborative project. Site Builders, Module Developers and Themers will often contribute their work back to the community and collaborate with others. It is common for module developers to share and collaborate on contributed modules, themers on contributed themes and site builders on site building recipes and other forms of documentation.

The Three Disciplines

What is a drupal developer?

Drupal Generalist /Jack of All trades

It is very common to do all three. You may be more advanced in one area or another, but still act in a general capacity.

In most of the projects I have worked on, there has not been a dedicated site builder. Both backend developers and fronted developers will do elements of site building.

A Drupal developer who is a jack of all trades

How a business hire and use Drupal people varies. In one extreme, a business may hire specialists. To deliver a particular piece of functionality or feature, the work may have to go through each of the specialities before it is done. One of the other extremes, is a business may assume that a Drupal person should do all three specialities. In this case, it is common for the team to be a team of “Drupal Developers” and the role encompasses site building, backend development and theming. Both approaches have their pros and cons, but that is for another day!

Other roles

Just like any other web development setup, there is a range of other roles included in the process of building and support Drupal applications. This includes:

Sysadmin / Devops - run the live stack, will often deploy Drupal sites to the live environment, deal with performance issues, setup a CDN, Varnish, Memcache etc.

QA - test all changes to ensure quality and that they meet the requirements. Setup automated tests.

Project Manager / Scrum Master - run the scrum team, remove impediments to progress, ensure delivery of the project on time and budget.

Product owner - comes up with the requirements. Works closely with the project manager to prioritise the backlog. Normally has final sign off of all changes.

Design / UX - comes up with the design and user experience. They might build prototypes that can then be converted into a Drupal theme.

Who is not a Drupal developer

This advice should be given to any recruiter or hirer in the Drupal space. A PHP developer is not necessarily a Drupal developer. It does not matter how good the PHP developer is at PHP, unless they have decent Drupal experience and understand its API’s and, dare I say it, “the Drupal way”, they will make many mistakes. You will then need to hire an experienced Drupal developer to clean up the mess left behind. Of course, I am being a bit simplistic here. In current times where demand far out strips supply, it as not as simple as that. You might be forced to hire a PHP developer who doesn’t have much (or any) Drupal experience. That is fine, but the minimum requirement should be that the developer wants to learn the Drupal standards, understand the Drupal culture and try and do it the Drupal way. You don’t want someone who treats it as just another framework that can be bent and broken to the developer’s way of thinking. That is a recipe for creating a maintenance nightmare that will cost the business in the long run.

Where do you go from here?

When I first launched the early edition of my book, Master Drupal Module Development, I asked people on my mailing list whether they were Site Builders, Backend Developers or Themers. The split was mostly between Site Builders and Backend Developers but most of the developers were people who developed in tech outside of Drupal and were looking to find the best way to learn Drupal development.

Developer from another technology

If you are a developer from another technology, there are a couple of routes available. One is to build a couple of sites using pure site building. And then, once you are happy with the basics of Drupal, you could dive into module development. Being an experienced developer will almost certainly give you a leg up, because you obviously already know how to do development. Now you need to learn the Drupal APIs and the Drupal way.

Site Builder

If you are a site builder, you might want to move into module/backend development. Because you already know your way around Drupal, you also have a leg up. However, you still need to learn the Drupal APIs and the Drupal way of developing. In addition, if you don’t have any or much programming experience, you will need to learn some of that to. You don’t need to be a programming genius to get started with Drupal development. You can get started with just the basics of PHP in addition to something like my book.


If you are a themer, you might not want to do anything else but get better at theming and frontend development. After all, there is a ton to master there, especially when you include CSS and Javascript. But you might want to learn some module development. It will certainly help you broaden your horizons and achieve more.

Module Developer

If you are a Module/Backend Developer, then where do you go? You can always learn more about theming. But might also consider learning more about being a solutions architect. If you are happy being a backend developer, then getting more experience in other PHP frameworks (such as Laravel or Symfony2) is very beneficial to your career prospects and capabilities as a developer.

Where do you fit in?

Do you consider yourself a Site Builder, Themer, Module Developer or something else? Are you looking to move into another area? If so, what are your main obstacles? I’d love to hear from you in the comments below.